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  • The Calendar of Enoch

    Dead Sea Scrolls Reveal Hidden Calendar

    “Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock. His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all who play stringed instruments and pipes. Zillah also had a son, Tubal-Cain, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron.”
    (Genesis 4:20-22)
    It is not surprising that the book of beginnings has something to say about the invention of ancient crafts. We might wonder, upon reading these brief examples, if other arts besides farming, music and metal craft, could have also been mentioned? Apparently there was. In the book of Jubilees, an extra-biblical writing found among the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran, comes this additional claim:

    “Enoch was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months ...” (Book of Jubilees 4:17)
    So, to Enoch son of Jared, is credited the honour of inventing the calendar. Now, this is no small matter because Enoch was only six generations from Adam and calendar astronomy involves advanced understanding that was not perfected (we assume) until the Gregorian reforms in the 16th century. Until Qumran it was generally thought the earliest calendar was an Egyptian one, and inaccurate at that. Not so, says Jubilees; Enoch was the ‘father’ of the calendar!

    The scrolls then go on to produce information showing Enoch’s calendar to be in advance of anything operating today. First of all, it was what purists call a ‘permanent’ calendar. Event days, birthdays, festival days never changed from one year to the next. For example, American Independence Day took place on Thursday, 4th July, 1776. In this system it would fall on Thursday forever. The same would be true of important religious festivals.

    Secondly, it was soli-lunar following both Sun and Moon. Thirdly, it tracked the solar cycle of 365.242 days with stunning accuracy over unlimited time by means of a Sabbatic leap-year formula. There is new evidence concerning this which has emerged only recently.

    Those who make a casual reading of para-biblical literature might write it off as unlikely. So what if they were found preserved with Old Testament fragments? That only makes them older than originally thought, penned by a minority sect about two-hundred years before Christ. ‘Jubilees’ was probably the work of Essenes, written to explain the older ‘book of Enoch’ which itself was probably the imagination of Jewish mystics from the inter-testament era.

    However, a more reasonable theory would be that some portions of the book of Enoch were ancient indeed, preserved by priest-astronomers and prophets like Daniel (Daniel 1:17) but corrupted with additions. The astronomical portions of the book should not be written off as fable.

    Of course, it would be better if scripture confirmed the non-canonical accounts so to Genesis we return. The life spans of those who lived before the flood were rarely less than nine-hundred years but Enoch was a conspicuous exception. We are told that he did not die, but God “took him.” Clearly, God was in control as to when he “took him,” so would it be when Enoch was 500? 600? 700? No; but by some extraordinary coincidence it was when Enoch was 365 years old! (Genesis 5:21-24) It would be even more interesting to know if his departure was three months into his final year because that would make him 365.25 – one year for every day in the solar cycle! In any case, Enoch’s final age was a ‘sign.’ The hidden calendar of Qumran is surely indicated here. Yes, Enoch was the father of the calendar.

    Concerning the Modern Jewish Calendar

    A common area of confusion concerning the biblical calendar arises from an assumption that the modern Hebrew calendar is the same as the ancient one. It isn’t. The misunderstanding is not helped by rabbinic experts either, who make the same assumptions as everyone else. It’s a good calendar, it’s soli-lunar, and it works. Why look for another? Also, a false credibility bolsters the assumption since the modern Hebrew calendar is not really modern. It is similar to, and can be traced back to the Babylonian captivity. That is old.

    But it is not as old as the one of which the Dead Sea scrolls speak. Moses set up a calendar eight hundred years before the Babylonian empire existed. (Exodus 12:1) Genesis speaks of a calendar before Egyptian civilization. (Genesis 7:11)

    There are other clues concerning this matter too. For example, the all-important month of Abib (Deuteronomy 16:1) reappears after the captivity as ‘Nisan,’ a Babylonian name. (Nisanu) Was it just an innocuous name change? Not according to the Essenes it wasn’t! The Qumran community rejected the post-Babylonian calendar and the temple authority’s festival dates because they believed the true calendar had been abandoned by the priests and replaced with an alternative system. Their scrolls show instead a calendar that operated with a unique Sabbatical formula. This, they believed to be the original and those who departed from it were apostate. They said:

    “All the children of Israel will forget and will not find the path of the years, and will forget the new moons, and seasons, and Sabbaths and they will wrongly determine all the order of the years. For this reason the years will come upon them when they disturb (misinterpret) the order, and make an abominable day the day of testimony, and an unclean day a feast day, and they will confound all the days, the holy with the unclean, and the unclean day with the holy; for they will go wrong as to the months and sabbaths and feasts and jubilees.”
    (Book of Jubilees 6:33-37)
    So, the Essenes were claiming their calendar was the real one and the modern one was not! Before examining their claim more closely we need to ask, “Why have Jewish authorities not noticed the earlier system?” At the very least, Hillel should have been aware of it, but he chose to ignore it and proceed with the one we now know – a Judaized Babylonian calendar with an added month every three years and a reset cycle after nineteen years. The answer is partly the fault of the Essenes themselves. They antagonised the Sadducees with their fanaticism to the point that the temple authorities excommunicated them and their writings were suppressed. The Christian church also rejected a key book, Enoch. That was a pity. Not to say it should have been canonised, in the opinion of this author, but it contained valuable astronomical information that should not have disappeared from circulation like it did.

    Then three copies of the book of Enoch turned up in Abyssinia in 1773. After that came the Dead Sea scroll discovery in 1946. That’s when people started asking questions about the true biblical calendar.

    360, 364 or 365 Days?

    The existence of a hidden calendar has always been suspected by those who follow biblical chronologies and timelines. So when ancient scrolls were found Bible students scrambled to see if anything confirmed their theories. They were disappointed. The scrolls stated in no uncertain terms that a year was to be 364 days, no less.

    “The book of the courses of the luminaries of heaven, the relations of each, according to their name, origin, and months (dominion and seasons) which Uriel, the holy angel who was with me, who is their guide, showed me … the year is exactly as to its days three hundred and sixty-four.” (Enoch 72:1,32)
    The Bible, on the other hand, speaks of 360 divided by 30-day months. (Revelation 11:2-3) There are no references to 364 in scripture – either Old Testament or New. Moreover, it takes 365.242 days for the Earth to get around the Sun. As long as planet Earth remains, nothing is going to change that. So, more excitement was generated by Qumran’s archaeological significance than its astronomy which seemed to be out of step.

    However, the ‘Enochian’ calendar is not what it seems. It is in its primary form three-hundred and sixty days just as the biblical one is. The difference is that it is presented in its first stage of intercalation with the rotation of planet Earth. Four of its days were additions - intercalory days. The four seasons, each consisting of three 30-day months, had a leap day added at the end of the third month so that each quarter increased from ninety to ninety-one days. In so doing, the year increased from three hundred and sixty to three hundred and sixty-four.

    “In the numbering of all their days in which the sun traverses heaven, entering into and departing from the doors for thirty days … together with the four which are added within the calendar which divide the four portions of the year … and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.” (Enoch 82:4-6)
    Here is a simple diagram of the Enochian year. The reason why we failed to notice it on its first stage of intercalation from 360 is because leaps are usually applied every so many years. We do not expect to see them inside of each year. However, for reasons known only to God, there is an underlying 360-day calendar in the Bible which can be expanded to synchronise with earthly astronomy. It has been called a ‘prophetic’ calendar in its basic form because scripture employs it that way in prophetic scenarios.



    When studying the Enochian calendar one cannot help but notice a strict sabbatic emphasis. There are seven days in the week and there are 52*7=364 days (exactly) in the year. Any deviation from this pattern is strongly condemned and that is the clue to additional intercalations. There would be no add-hoc leap-year additions whenever it suited unless the days were in multiples of seven and applied according to a pre-defined sabbatic formula. I believe we can now make a credible reconstruction of that formula.

    One more thing worth thinking about: Through the 20th century have been proposals aired in scientific journals for what is called a ‘permanent calendar’. These reforms would make changing calendars each year unnecessary because every high day and holiday would fall on the same day of the week forever. They would require a leap week of seven days to the calendar every six or so years to keep the calendar in step with the solar cycle and to do this, the years would consist of 364 days (52 weeks) or 371 days (53 weeks) on intercalory years. These ideas are advanced concepts - so much so that some have suggested we should even replace our Gregorian calendar. Since it is of such sophistication, isn’t it amazing that cave dwellers at the Dead Sea knew about it? And isn’t it amazing that it was written in a book that was reputed to be even older than they?

    Synchronising with Planet Earth

    We have seen how the Bible’s 360-day calendar is expanded to 364 days and how a relationship appears between ancient time-keeping and the number seven. This has led some scholars to wonder if further intercalations might follow a sabbatical pattern. Some scroll experts have mooted the idea, not the least of whom was Jean Carmignac , a French scholar (one of the translators), who proposed that 7-day additions be made on the 7-year shmita – the religious cycle commanded by Moses.

    Such an idea would cause discomfort to evolutionists who squirm at examples of intelligent design because nature’s cycles are random are they not? Hence leap-years must be ad-hoc, but this suggestion follows a precise mathematical design with increments of seven days coinciding with and taking place on Sabbath years!

    The book of Jubilees also indicates it might be so. Like the earlier book of Enoch, the days were 364, but Jubilees adds another dimension - a relationship between the weekly Sabbath and the longer term sabbatic year. ‘Jubilees’, referring to the former book, says:

    “Enoch was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months ...”
    Notice how that Enoch is credited with being inventor of the calendar but please continue …

    “... And he was the first to write a testimony and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years.” (Book of Jubilees 4:17-18)
    Here is the clue to the problem of our solar year being 365.24 days. Ancient Hebrew astronomy extended beyond an annual count of days to the ‘Sabbath of years’ suggesting that further intercalations were made at special sabbatic intervals. So let us attempt a reconstruction to see if it tracks the solar cycle. Here is the proposition. Each seventh year had an additional seven days added.

    Hence the total number of days per ‘week of years’ (seven years) was:

    • 2520......(360*7=2520)
    • plus 28...(4*7=28 added over 7 yrs)
    • plus 7.....(added on 7th year)
    • = 2555...(total number of days)


    Now, please divide 2555 days by seven years. The figure is now equivalent to 365 days per year! That is very close and the question begs to be asked, “Can Sabbath adjustments complete the solar cycle without losing the divine pattern and without losing time?” If so, Enoch’s calendar would be the most advanced system ever known.

    The Jubilee Cycle

    There is no such thing as a ‘decade’ in the ancient calendar. It is a ‘weeks of years,’ in other words, seven. Likewise, there is no such thing as a ‘century.’ It is a ‘Jubilee,’ which is forty-nine years long. Two Jubilees equal ninety-eight years – not one hundred. This is made obvious in the calendar writings of the Dead Sea scrolls. For example, in Jubilees 23:8 (cf. Genesis 25:7) we find the age of Abraham described as follows: “He lived three jubilees and four weeks of years, one hundred and seventy five years.” Please do the math: (3*49) + (4*7) = 175 years.

    This cycle is demonstrated in the prophecy of Daniel 9:24. The 'Seventy Weeks Prophecy' as it is so famously known, is equivalent to ten jubilees. Please do the math: 70*7 = 10*49 = 490 years. Notice; if the Jubilee cycle had been fifty, the length of term would have been five-hundred years.

    A misunderstanding exists concerning this matter because Leviticus 25:8-11 speaks of a fiftieth year and the Jubilee cycle is thought by some to step in multiples of fifty. Not so; it steps in forty-nines. What then, it might be fairly asked, is the fiftieth year? It is the year following the last ‘seven’ and is simultaneous to the first year of the new Jubilee cycle. The attached diagram uses fictitious dates to demonstrate how it works. Another way of explaining is to think of it as akin to calling Sunday the ‘eighth day’ when it is in fact also the first day of the new week.



    The point being made here is that the time cycles are strictly sabbatical and always divisible by seven. So, let us continue with our reconstruction of the Enochian calendar based on this pattern. Leap years would have been added at special sabbatic intervals – 7 extra days every seven years and 14 extra days every forty-nine years. Now let us calculate the number of days in the Jubilee cycle.

    • 2555.......(1st week years 1-7)
    • 2555.......(2nd week yrs 8-14)
    • 2555.......(3rd week yrs 15-21)
    • 2555.......(4th week yrs 22-28)
    • 2555.......(5th week yrs 29-35)
    • 2555.......(6th week yrs 36-42)
    • 2555.......(7th week yrs 43-49)
    • plus 7......(added on 49th year)
    • = 17892..(total number of days)


    Now, please divide 17892 days by forty-nine years. The figure is now equivalent to 365.14 days per year! There is only one small adjustment to go and the calendars synchronise with mind-boggling accuracy over hundreds of years!
    Yes, there was an advanced ancient calendar!
    Yes, it is important to biblical understanding!
    Yes, it had a purpose and was going somewhere!

    [Spelling: EN UK]
    Comments 23 Comments
    1. Eyelog's Avatar
      Eyelog -
      This is utterly fascinating. Thank you, Cyb. This is good evidence that what some critics would call Biblical anachronyms (http://thecitizens.blogspot.com/2004...acrifice.html; http://findarticles.com/p/articles/m.../ai_n8856707/; http://www.tektonics.org/af/anachronisms.html; http://www.theskepticalreview.com/tsrmag/995bewar.html) might more accurately be called Enochronyms. ... You think?
    1. Cyberseeker's Avatar
      Cyberseeker -
      Thanks Eyelog. Bible skeptics have often zeroed in on (apparent) errors in Old Testament dates. However their 'contradiction' examples have been reducing in number as believing scholars have fine-tuned ancient chronology. For example, a major improvement in the dating of the Kings of Israel happened last century which 'pulled the rug' out from skeptics earlier arguments.

      This ancient calendar information will also serve to explain some of the critical questions that have been thrown at us. As you say, it is more "evidence."
    1. thethirdtuttle's Avatar
      thethirdtuttle -
      Interesting stuff, Cyberseeker. I had always wondered if there was any significance to Enoch's age when he was taken by God. I mean, there has to be, since God included it in the Bible, but it's interesting how he lived the same number of years as the number of days in a year.
    1. Cyberseeker's Avatar
      Cyberseeker -
      Yes, if Enoch died naturally aged 365 years, we might write it off as a curious coincidence. But it was God who deliberately 'took him.' He was providing us with a sign concerning the calendar. I think we can be fairly sure about that.
    1. tim_from_pa's Avatar
      tim_from_pa -
      Very nice article. I bookmarked this. I, too was fascinated by the calendar Enoch used when I read that book, and I noticed right away (being into math) how one could use a 360 or 364 day calendar with intercalations based on the number 7 and over time the average of the year comes out to 365+ days. But that was just my math analysis (and opinion) of it. I am pleased to see that this was discovered verifying what I suspected.
    1. Cyberseeker's Avatar
      Cyberseeker -
      We are on the same page Tim. A few Dead Sea scholars (for example Jean Carmignac) have noticed this. However most studies get hazy after the '7-year' leap year. I believe an intercalation occurred on the 49th year and once again (a final intercalation) on the 490th year. It is not commonly realised that 490 years was a repeating unit of time - a 'Grand Jubilee.'
    1. PneumaPsucheSoma's Avatar
      PneumaPsucheSoma -
      Great blog, and an interest of mine for years. Has this given us any clearer conclusions about calculating the duration of time from Enoch going forward? And can we now determine what should be Day 1 in each modern year? Or a better estimate what year we're in?

      I'd like to convert to the Enochian calendar for my personal life, even if the Gregorian has to be maintained for interactivity. Is there any simple way to now determine that?
    1. Cyberseeker's Avatar
      Cyberseeker -
      I have mixed feelings about going back to the Enochian calendar. Yes, it would still work and it could be converted to our Gregorian system too. Actually there are calendar reform groups around who are proposing similar ideas.

      However, I suspect that if the Enochian calendar was resurrected some people would be tempted to predict future events on special jubilees. I dont believe that should be done because the jubilee arrived in Christ.
    1. Brother Mark's Avatar
      Brother Mark -
      That was an interesting read Cyber. Any idea where the remaining adjustment may have come from? Very interesting.
    1. Kahtar's Avatar
      Kahtar -
      Cyber, following your figures above, if you add an additional 49 days every 490 years (grand Jubilee), you come up with 365.2429 days in a year. I'm not quite sure how to put those 49 days in there, but it is without question an interesting number...
    1. Kahtar's Avatar
      Kahtar -
      The Average Gregorian year is 365.2425 days.By adding that 49 years every grand jubilee, you come up with 365.2429. That is a difference of 1.176 hours every 490 years. Or a little over 2 hours a millenia.
    1. Brother Mark's Avatar
      Brother Mark -
      Quote Originally Posted by Kahtar View Post
      The Average Gregorian year is 365.2425 days.By adding that 49 years every grand jubilee, you come up with 365.2429. That is a difference of 1.176 hours every 490 years. Or a little over 2 hours a millenia.
      How long did the Lord still the earth for Joshua? Any chance that could play a role?

      And what is the significance of 10 jubilees? Hmmm...

      So 49 years added every 490 years. Is that what you are saying? Or 49 days for every 490 years?
    1. Kahtar's Avatar
      Kahtar -
      49 days.
      I'm not real sure what exactly the significance of 490 years is, only that it seems to be significant to God. Daniel's 70 weeks, Jesus' answer of 70 times 7 for forgiveness, and I think it plays into the time that Israel was in Egypt. That was 430 years, but if memory serves me at all (and that's debatable, lol) that other 60 years is counted from somewhere.
      The earth stood still for a day I think. Not sure how that would figure in tho.
    1. Brother Mark's Avatar
      Brother Mark -
      Quote Originally Posted by Kahtar View Post
      49 days.
      I'm not real sure what exactly the significance of 490 years is, only that it seems to be significant to God. Daniel's 70 weeks, Jesus' answer of 70 times 7 for forgiveness, and I think it plays into the time that Israel was in Egypt. That was 430 years, but if memory serves me at all (and that's debatable, lol) that other 60 years is counted from somewhere.
      The earth stood still for a day I think. Not sure how that would figure in tho.
      If there were 12 millenia, and it stood still for a day, then that's one less day over the period of time needed to make it all work. It would have been the missing 2 hours per 1000 years. Maybe. Not sure. I haven't thought this through yet so much as just interested in it.

      Don't forget too that Israel was in bondage for 70 years after not keeping the sabbath for 490 years.
    1. Cyberseeker's Avatar
      Cyberseeker -
      Yes, the final adjustment seems to occur every 490 years. I believe the formula is available in scripture. Its hard to explain the final part without employing more diagrams so for those who are interested please PM me and Ill provide a link to my published book.

      Incidentally, Im a standard evangelical Christian. I dont try to slip in predictions or weird doctrines; promise.
    1. household's Avatar
      household -
      When would the correct starting point for the Enochian Solar Calendar be? Some say Enoch states that the year begins on the day of equal hours which always is the 16th of March. I checked by Jerusalem time and this is so. But there are not 91 days to the summer solstice from that point. It is a week later. Once one gets the start of the year right, then tracking the continuing seven day sabbaths and holy days would be easy. You could peg them off for 354 days.
    1. knctaylor's Avatar
      knctaylor -
      Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
      Yes, the final adjustment seems to occur every 490 years. I believe the formula is available in scripture. Its hard to explain the final part without employing more diagrams so for those who are interested please PM me and Ill provide a link to my published book.

      Incidentally, Im a standard evangelical Christian. I dont try to slip in predictions or weird doctrines; promise.

      Hello Cyberseeker,

      I just signed up to this forum just so that I could PM you to get the link to your published book! I am not certain how to do this and wonder if you could help me out.
      By the way, thanks very much for the article.
      Keith
    1. jeffspencer's Avatar
      jeffspencer -
      Awesome article. Very interested in this calendar now. I must know how the 2300 days of Daniel relates to this.
    1. DebM's Avatar
      DebM -
      so, when is the seventh day sabbath that is the sign that we are in covenant?
    1. Tallen's Avatar
      Tallen -
      Hmmm..., I have been studying this very same thing for quite awhile. Independantly of your thoughts, BTW. I have come up with almost exactly the same thing. What is interesting to me, is that the months are not determined by a "new moon", which is a rather confusing idea to begin with and causes the years to be off from the biblical clues we do have. With Enochs calendar, for instance, Passover will always be on the fourteenth day of the first month, and always on the same day of the week in the Sabbath cycle. There is no drifting in the days.

      Some problems I have considered is: 1) There is a solar "drift" through the constellations that completes a cycle in about 26,000 years. This problem means that the "markers" in the stars that would indicate a new year drifts as well, so there can be no set time of determining the beginning of a year over very long periods of time. 2) It seems that using equinoxes to determine new years is a pagan practice, and the Enoch calendar doesn't use the equinox.

      I have some in sight into Genesis 1:4-16 that I would like to share with you.

      Have you considered the problems above? What is the marker that would determine the beginning of a New Year, in your opinion? You can email me at tedclore at Yahoo dot com, if you so desire. Thanks.
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