More On the Differences Between the Septuagint Greek Old Testament and the Masorectic Hebrew Text
This began with the intention of only answering the question of rejoice44 about what manuscript of the Septuagint Breton used in his English translation. But it morphed into a longer discussion of the differences between the later Masoretic Hebrew and the Greek Septuagint, based upon a Hebrew text before the time of Christ.
"Relatively complete manuscripts of the LXX postdate the Hexaplar rescension and include the Codex Vaticanus from the 4th century CE and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century. These are indeed the oldest surviving nearly complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language; the oldest extant complete Hebrew texts date some 600 years later, from the first half of the 10th century. The 4th century Codex Sinaiticus also partially survives, still containing many texts of the Old Testament. While there are differences between these three codices, scholarly consensus today holds that one LXX — that is, the original pre-Christian translation — underlies all three. The various Jewish and later Christian revisions and recensions are largely responsible for the divergence of the codices..........The most widely accepted view today is that the original Septuagint provided a reasonably accurate record of an early Hebrew textual variant that differed from the ancestor of the Masoretic text as well as those of the Latin Vulgate, where both of the latter seem to have a more similar textual heritage."
"The translation of Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton, published in 1851, is a long-time standard. For most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. It is based primarily upon the Codex Vaticanus..."
"Codex Vaticanus originally contained a virtually complete copy of the Septuagint ("LXX"), lacking only 1-4 Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasseh. The original 20 leaves with the Genesis 1:1–46:28a (31 leaves) and Psalm 105:27–137:6b have been lost and were transcribed by a later hand in the 15th century. 2 Kings 2:5–7, 10-13 are also lost because of a tear to one of the pages. "
More interesting is the verse wording differences between the Masorectic Hebrew and the Septuagint Greek for Psalm 40: 6 and Isaiah 42: 6.
they say of the Hebrew Masoretic Text that "It was primarily compiled, edited and distributed by a group of Jews known as the Masoretes between the seventh and tenth centuries CE, though the consonants differ little from the text generally accepted in the early second century. "
"CE" more exactly is A.D. The humanist scholars don't want to acknowledge the primacy of Christ in the long tradition of dating before and after Christ, or BC and AD.
Hebrews 10:5 (KJV Quoting Psalm 40:6)
Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and
offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me...
Psalm 40:6 (KJV Taken from Masortic)
Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened...
Psalm 40:6 (Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint)
Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not; but a body hast thou prepared me...
Psalm 40:6 is regarded by Early Christians as a prophecy of
the Incarnation of Christ, and Hebrews 10:5 quotes it as such, but the
Masoretic Text omits the key phrase entirely, replacing “but a body
hast thou prepared for me” with “mine ears hast thou opened.” Note
that the KJV New Testament and the Greek Septuagint agree with each
other but the Hebrew Masoretic text does not agree with the Septuagint on
the issue of a body being prepared.
Probably the older Hebrew text that the Septuagint was translated from talked
about a body prepared for "that prophet" in Deuteronomy 18: 15-20. Psalm 40: 6
was seen by the early Christians as a prophecy for Christ appearing in the body of a man.
But the Masoretics were a group who sought to restore Judaism - which rejected the
Christian teaching that Christ appeared as a man, and rejected Christ as their Messiah.
Peter in Acts 3: 22 mentions the "prophet" in Deuteronomy 18, and Peter says "And it shall
come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from among
the people," quoting Deuteronomy 18: 19.
But - again the quote of Deuteronomy 18: 19 in Acts 3: 23 does not agree with the Masoretic Hebrew for Deuteronomy 18: 19.
The KJV English for the Masorectic Hrebrew in Deuteronomy 18: 19 says "And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him."
The Septuagint says for Deuteronomy 18: 19: "And whatever man shall not hearken to whatsoever words that prophet shall speak in my name, I will take vengeance on him."
Was Peter quoting a different version of Deuteronomy 18: 19 in Acts 3: 23, or was he speaking from new revelation? In either case, we have to believe that the Holy Spirit inspired what Peter said in Acts 3: 23 and believe that those who reject Christ, and continue to do so until their death, will be destroyed from among the people.
Matthew 12:21 (KJV Quoting Isaiah 42:4)
And in his name shall the Gentiles trust.
Isaiah 42:4 (KJV Taken from Masoretic)
He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the
earth: and the isles shall wait for his law
Isaiah 42:4 (Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint)
He shall shine out, and shall not be discouraged, until he have set
judgment on the earth: and in his name shall the Gentiles trust.
Note that the Masoretic Hebrew says nothing about the Gentiles
trusting in God. There is a thread of prophecy in the Old Testament
predicting that the Gentiles will join the people of God, that is, Israel.
"And I will sow her unto me in the earth; and I will have mercy upon
her that had not obtained mercy; and I will say to them which were not
my people, Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God."
Hosea 2: 23
Isaiah 11: 10 says "And in that day there
shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the
people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be
Isaiah 42: 6 says "I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and
will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a
covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles." Isaiah 49: 6
repeats this in saying "I will also give thee for a light to the
gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth."
Then Isaiah 60: 2-3, Isaiah 66: 12, Malachi 1: 11 say the Gentiles
will become God's people. The Old testament does not say that the
Gentiles will become a separate group of God's people. Physical Israel
was first to be a light to the Gentiles to bring them to God.
Bringing the Gentiles in to be God's people is just one part of the
Old Testament prophecies on the transformation of Israel.
But the Masoretic movement in trying to restore Judaism and all physical
Israel as the chosen people would reject the teaching that the Gentiles
were to be brought into Israel as equals to the physical descendants of Abraham.
When the Septuagint version of Isaiah 42: 4 is compared to the Masoretic version, which
has nothing on the Gentiles trusting in God, we have to suspect that somewhere at some time
the wording was changed.
It starts in II Kings 21: 13 - God says he will set a plummet at the
house of Ahab, to judge it, and he will wipe Jerusalem and turn it
upside down, where Jerusalem represents physical Israel. Then Isaiah
29: 16 refers back to II Kings 21: 13, the turning of things upside
down, and in saying this turning of things upside down shall be esteemed as the potter's clay, Isaiah refers to Jeremiah 18: 1-6, on
the parable of the potter who made one pot on the wheel which the
potter saw was marred and then took that same lump of clay and made
another pot which the potter thought was good.