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Thread: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

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    The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    The early church believed the Roman Empire was the 4th beast of Daniel, and would be divided into 10 kingdoms. Their quotations make that clear.


    In a still clearer light has John, in the Apocalypse, indicated to the Lord’s disciples ... concerning the ten kings who shall then arise, among whom the empire which now rules the earth shall be partitioned. He teaches us what the ten horns shall be which were seen by Daniel.
    (Irenaeus 130202 AD)

    “A fourth beast, dreadful and terrible; it had iron teeth and claws of brass.” And who are these but the Romans? - the kingdom which is now established ... After this, what remains, but the toes of the feet of the image, in which part is iron and part clay, mixed together? And mystically by the toes of the feet he meant the kings who are to arise from among them.
    (Hippolytus (170–235 AD)

    For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work, but only until the one who now restrains it is removed. What obstacles are there but the Roman state, the rebellion of which, by being scattered into the ten kingdoms, will introduce the Antichrist upon its own ruins?
    (Tertullian 160–220 AD)

    The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall surpass all kingdoms. And that this kingdom is that of the Romans, has been the tradition of the Church’s interpreters ... There shall rise up together ten kings of the Romans, reigning in different parts , but all about the same time; and after these an eleventh, the Antichrist, who by his magical craft shall seize upon the Roman power; and of the kings who reigned before him, three he shall humble, and the remaining seven he shall keep in subjection to himself …
    (Cyril of Jerusalem 313–386 AD)

    We should therefore concur with the traditional interpretation of all the commentators of the Christian Church, that at the end of the world, when the Roman Empire is to be destroyed, there shall be ten kings who will partition the Roman world amongst themselves. Then an insignificant eleventh king will arise, who will overcome three of the ten kings... after they have been slain, the seven other kings also will bow their necks to the victor.
    (Jerome 347-420 AD)
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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    So, the early church writings do not support most of our modern end time theories. Instead, they seem to support the 'Historicist' view that the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation would gradually fulfill over church history. With that in mind, Im attaching a map of the Roman Empire at its fullest extent.






    So, they are saying the this Empire (between the Rhine river and North Africa) would divide up into ten kingdoms. Did that ever happen?
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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
    So, the early church writings do not support most of our modern end time theories. Instead, they seem to support the 'Historicist' view that the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation would gradually fulfill over church history. With that in mind, Im attaching a map of the Roman Empire at its fullest extent.


    So, they are saying the this Empire (between the Rhine river and North Africa) would divide up into ten kingdoms. Did that ever happen?
    What stumbles many a good expositor/eschatologist is that they understand Rome in the Military context. This concept/understanding ends logically with the demise of Rome's Military domination around 410 AD, and thus any prophetic connection seems to fizzle out. But if we see that the effigy in Daniel Chapter 2 is ONE effigy, and the WHOLE is destroyed by Christ at His Second Coming (Dan.2:45), then we have the first hint that it is neither any one kingdom nor any one military empire that is laid before us in prophecy. We must look for a COMMON thread in ALL FOUR - that is, what was COMMON to all four.

    Revelation Chapters 17 and 18 answer this. Although all the evidence points to Rome (which I will show anon), the Holy Spirit calls it in Revelation 17:5, "And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH." All through scripture "harlotry" by an entity or nation is idol worship - that is, False Religion. And in Chapter 18:2 Rome is called just "Babylon the great", and there her fornication is a commercial one. The question then is, why, if the evidence so clearly points to Rome, does the Holy Spirit call it Babylon? The answer is that the RELIGION which started at Babel in Genesis 11 is the COMMON THREAD AND POWER OF EVERY SUBSEQUENT WORLD POWER. It started with Nimrod of Cush of Ham. It was him who takes the dominion on earth and raises up a kingdom that has the worship of the creature as its base.

    Few consider this but how do we exercise power of people? Well we can (1) promise them REWARD in this life. This spurs some on but others could not be bothered. (2) We can threaten their LIVES with pain and death, but some are really willing to die for their cause. (3) But if we can convince a man that we have the say over his EVERLASTING LIFE, then we can demand anything of him and he will do it. God agrees to this in Matthew 10:28. God Himself says that we should not so much fear what men can do to our bodies, but what God can do to body and soul in Gehenna. Gehenna is the EVERLASTING FATE of God's enemies. This BELIEF is the most effective weapon to control people. On the negative side the suicide soldiers of the centuries will testify to this. And on the positive side, even our Lord Jesus testifies to this for, in Hebrews 12:2 we learn, "Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God." Religion is the most powerful component among men for gaining their loyalty.

    Thus, all the proofs point to Rome being the ruling power on earth when our Lord returns, but its POWER is the religion of Babylon, not a powerful army or police force. History records that around 313 AD, the then Pontifex Maximus, Constantine, declared Christianity an official religion. The MILITARY Roman Empire had become the HOLY Roam Empire - a name it holds till today. The MILITARY was failing, so the Romans changed their armor for priests robes, and then continued their reign in world politics by RELIGION. Now let us see what a search of the scriptures will turn up on the Whore called Babylon the Great. All is epitomized by the one Charismatic king who will be given the power of ten other kings of the kingdom of clay and iron.
    1. Daniel 2 to 7 is written in Chaldean for the NATIONS. It addresses the kings and nations of the GENTILES. Thus, the last ruling Kingdom is a GENTILE kingdom
    2. This is born out by the fact that the Beast comes from the "sea" (Rev.13:1). The "sea" in parable is the nations (Ezek.26:3, etc.)
    3. This is born out by the fact that the Whore sits on "many waters" (Rev.17:1)
    4. This is born out by the fact that the Whore fornicates with "the kings of the earth" (Rev.17:2, 15)
    5. Babylon the Great and "Mother of Harlots" looks like Christianity. In Revelation 17:4 she is "... arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, ... ." These elements are in the Garden of Eden, in 1st Corinthians 3 for building the Church and in New Jerusalem - the House of God. In the whole world today, ONLY Rome looks like Christianity
    6. While the Church is in enemy territory wherever it is, Rome has been, and secretly still is, the main persecutor of "the martyrs of Jesus Christ" (Rev. 17:6). The inquisition is not over yet. It is just promoted subtly
    7. While many cities claim to be on seven hills, a closer examination will show that Rome is the only one that fulfills this description without adding or subtracting a supposed hill
    8. This previous point is further proved by John writing in 17:9-11 that the Beast upon whom the Whore rides is a one of the reigning kings OF HIS TIME because "one IS" (present tense). In 95 AD that can only be Rome

    Now we turn to the Beast to discover his nationality.
    1. According to the grammar of Daniel 9:26 the "prince" that is to come is a prince of the "people who destroy the city and the sanctuary". The destroyer was Rome in 70 AD. The Beast (prince) must be a Roman
    2. In Revelation 17:8 the coming "prince" of Daniel 9:26, called "the Beast" in the rest of Daniel and Revelation, is one of EIGHT kings the SEVENTH of which was reigning at John's writing. This was a Caesar - a Roman. This makes the Beast, who had already died, a Caesar.
    3. The "number of his NAME" is 666. In both Hebrew and Greek, the two languages of the Bible, each letter is accorded a number. In BOTH Hebrew and Greek the NAME "Caesar Nero" comes to 666 when the letters are totaled.
    4. Caesar Nero fits all the criteria mentioned before. He was a Roman, a Caesar, and the greatest persecutor of the saints of Jesus Christ
    5. The only objection to Nero rising from the Abyss is that he belongs to "the rest of the dead". These are only resurrected AFTER the Millennium (Rev.20:5). But this is easily solved. According to Daniel 7:25 the Beast is given power to "... change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time." It is not "change time" as on a clock, but "TIMES" (plural) - the TIMES that things will happen. Thus, he would have the power to change the ORDER IN TIME of his, and the Second Beast's resurrection. Notice too that while there is a great slaughter of the Beast's army in Revelation 19:21, the Beast and the False Prophet are cast "alive" into the Lake of Fire (v.20). This fulfills Hebrews 9:27 which states that a MAN can only die ONCE.

    The evidence is enormous. With only half of what we have shown here it is well established that the Beast is a Roman, and he leads the ten toes, ten kings by the power of RELIGION. That is, physically it is Rome, but the POWER is the RELIGION of BABYLON which permeated all world powers to date, and which empowers ROME. Added to this, the Bible does not point to anything else at all, further cementing the fact that Rome is the last world Gentile Power, that the Beast is a Roman, and that Rome rules by the age-old RELIGION of Babylon.

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Daniel 7:8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

    Daniel 7:24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.

    As to this little horn. First it says the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise, Then speaking of this little horn the text goes on to say...shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. If meaning 3 of these 10 kings, obviously all these kings have to still be around after the little horn also arises. If this little horn is referring to a human being, humans at most live 100 years if they are fortunate enough. Can't put this in the past as fulfilled history if the little horn is meaning a human being. Because clearly this same little horn is the same one cast alive into the LOF at the 2nd coming, as per Rev 19.

    What I have to wonder since I haven't researched the early church's position on this all that much, what did most of them take the little horn to be referring to? Meaning did they take him to be a human being? I can see in the OP that many of the early church apparently took this little horn to be meaning the AC. But that doesn't answer whether they took the AC to be a human being or not. The point being, if they took the AC to be human, there couldn't possibly be a human currently alive on this earth who has been alive and well for hundreds and hundreds of years now. Keeping in mind what I submitted above prior to this last paragraph.

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    The early church treated the description 'kings' as kingdoms. So an 11th kingdom would swallow up three of the previous ten kingdoms. As for the "human antichrist", the early teachers said he would come out of the 11th kingdom. They assumed it would happen more or less when the 11th kingdom appeared. Yeah, I take your point; humans don't live that long.

    My view is that the 11th kingdom has already come, and is by nature 'antichrist.' However, the 'personification' of that kingdom (into human form) will happen in our time. I hope that helps.
    "Your name and renown
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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quote Originally Posted by Walls View Post
    What stumbles many a good expositor/eschatologist is that they understand Rome in the Military context. This concept/understanding ends logically with the demise of Rome's Military domination around 410 AD, and thus any prophetic connection seems to fizzle out. But if we see that the effigy in Daniel Chapter 2 is ONE effigy, and the WHOLE is destroyed by Christ at His Second Coming (Dan.2:45), then we have the first hint that it is neither any one kingdom nor any one military empire that is laid before us in prophecy. We must look for a COMMON thread in ALL FOUR - that is, what was COMMON to all four.

    Revelation Chapters 17 and 18 answer this. Although all the evidence points to Rome (which I will show anon), the Holy Spirit calls it in Revelation 17:5, "And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH." All through scripture "harlotry" by an entity or nation is idol worship - that is, False Religion. And in Chapter 18:2 Rome is called just "Babylon the great", and there her fornication is a commercial one. The question then is, why, if the evidence so clearly points to Rome, does the Holy Spirit call it Babylon? The answer is that the RELIGION which started at Babel in Genesis 11 is the COMMON THREAD AND POWER OF EVERY SUBSEQUENT WORLD POWER. It started with Nimrod of Cush of Ham. It was him who takes the dominion on earth and raises up a kingdom that has the worship of the creature as its base.

    Few consider this but how do we exercise power of people? Well we can (1) promise them REWARD in this life. This spurs some on but others could not be bothered. (2) We can threaten their LIVES with pain and death, but some are really willing to die for their cause. (3) But if we can convince a man that we have the say over his EVERLASTING LIFE, then we can demand anything of him and he will do it. God agrees to this in Matthew 10:28. God Himself says that we should not so much fear what men can do to our bodies, but what God can do to body and soul in Gehenna. Gehenna is the EVERLASTING FATE of God's enemies. This BELIEF is the most effective weapon to control people. On the negative side the suicide soldiers of the centuries will testify to this. And on the positive side, even our Lord Jesus testifies to this for, in Hebrews 12:2 we learn, "Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God." Religion is the most powerful component among men for gaining their loyalty.

    Thus, all the proofs point to Rome being the ruling power on earth when our Lord returns, but its POWER is the religion of Babylon, not a powerful army or police force. History records that around 313 AD, the then Pontifex Maximus, Constantine, declared Christianity an official religion. The MILITARY Roman Empire had become the HOLY Roam Empire - a name it holds till today. The MILITARY was failing, so the Romans changed their armor for priests robes, and then continued their reign in world politics by RELIGION. Now let us see what a search of the scriptures will turn up on the Whore called Babylon the Great. All is epitomized by the one Charismatic king who will be given the power of ten other kings of the kingdom of clay and iron.
    1. Daniel 2 to 7 is written in Chaldean for the NATIONS. It addresses the kings and nations of the GENTILES. Thus, the last ruling Kingdom is a GENTILE kingdom
    2. This is born out by the fact that the Beast comes from the "sea" (Rev.13:1). The "sea" in parable is the nations (Ezek.26:3, etc.)
    3. This is born out by the fact that the Whore sits on "many waters" (Rev.17:1)
    4. This is born out by the fact that the Whore fornicates with "the kings of the earth" (Rev.17:2, 15)
    5. Babylon the Great and "Mother of Harlots" looks like Christianity. In Revelation 17:4 she is "... arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, ... ." These elements are in the Garden of Eden, in 1st Corinthians 3 for building the Church and in New Jerusalem - the House of God. In the whole world today, ONLY Rome looks like Christianity
    6. While the Church is in enemy territory wherever it is, Rome has been, and secretly still is, the main persecutor of "the martyrs of Jesus Christ" (Rev. 17:6). The inquisition is not over yet. It is just promoted subtly
    7. While many cities claim to be on seven hills, a closer examination will show that Rome is the only one that fulfills this description without adding or subtracting a supposed hill
    8. This previous point is further proved by John writing in 17:9-11 that the Beast upon whom the Whore rides is a one of the reigning kings OF HIS TIME because "one IS" (present tense). In 95 AD that can only be Rome

    Now we turn to the Beast to discover his nationality.
    1. According to the grammar of Daniel 9:26 the "prince" that is to come is a prince of the "people who destroy the city and the sanctuary". The destroyer was Rome in 70 AD. The Beast (prince) must be a Roman
    2. In Revelation 17:8 the coming "prince" of Daniel 9:26, called "the Beast" in the rest of Daniel and Revelation, is one of EIGHT kings the SEVENTH of which was reigning at John's writing. This was a Caesar - a Roman. This makes the Beast, who had already died, a Caesar.
    3. The "number of his NAME" is 666. In both Hebrew and Greek, the two languages of the Bible, each letter is accorded a number. In BOTH Hebrew and Greek the NAME "Caesar Nero" comes to 666 when the letters are totaled.
    4. Caesar Nero fits all the criteria mentioned before. He was a Roman, a Caesar, and the greatest persecutor of the saints of Jesus Christ
    5. The only objection to Nero rising from the Abyss is that he belongs to "the rest of the dead". These are only resurrected AFTER the Millennium (Rev.20:5). But this is easily solved. According to Daniel 7:25 the Beast is given power to "... change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time." It is not "change time" as on a clock, but "TIMES" (plural) - the TIMES that things will happen. Thus, he would have the power to change the ORDER IN TIME of his, and the Second Beast's resurrection. Notice too that while there is a great slaughter of the Beast's army in Revelation 19:21, the Beast and the False Prophet are cast "alive" into the Lake of Fire (v.20). This fulfills Hebrews 9:27 which states that a MAN can only die ONCE.

    The evidence is enormous. With only half of what we have shown here it is well established that the Beast is a Roman, and he leads the ten toes, ten kings by the power of RELIGION. That is, physically it is Rome, but the POWER is the RELIGION of BABYLON which permeated all world powers to date, and which empowers ROME. Added to this, the Bible does not point to anything else at all, further cementing the fact that Rome is the last world Gentile Power, that the Beast is a Roman, and that Rome rules by the age-old RELIGION of Babylon.
    I agree that Rome is the fulfillment of this 4th Beast Empire and its 10 future nations. If Nero is who is meant by 666, and that is possible, it could indicate that Nero was a *type* of Antichrist, who will rise with the same spirit as Nero--with the same demonic spirit. Others in this forum have suggested this, and I suppose it is possible. 666 likely fit something people related to in the day John gave his Revelation. But clearly, the Antichrist is a future king not yet revealed.

    I also agree that the Harlot indicates a pseudo-religious Roman entity, a secularized Roman government following the Christianized Roman Empire. The kings of Europe in the Middle Ages and in modern times are secularistic governments, often embracing a less than complete Christian culture.

    If we trace the Roman imperial tradition from the old Empire to the breakup into states, controlled by the Holy Roman Empire, we will still see the Beast Empire. It did not fully break free of imperial control until fairly recently in history. That means the "10 nations" have only appeared in recent times. It will not be long, therefore, before we see the Antichrist.

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quote Originally Posted by divaD View Post
    Daniel 7:8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

    Daniel 7:24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.

    As to this little horn. First it says the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise, Then speaking of this little horn the text goes on to say...shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. If meaning 3 of these 10 kings, obviously all these kings have to still be around after the little horn also arises. If this little horn is referring to a human being, humans at most live 100 years if they are fortunate enough. Can't put this in the past as fulfilled history if the little horn is meaning a human being. Because clearly this same little horn is the same one cast alive into the LOF at the 2nd coming, as per Rev 19.

    What I have to wonder since I haven't researched the early church's position on this all that much, what did most of them take the little horn to be referring to? Meaning did they take him to be a human being? I can see in the OP that many of the early church apparently took this little horn to be meaning the AC. But that doesn't answer whether they took the AC to be a human being or not. The point being, if they took the AC to be human, there couldn't possibly be a human currently alive on this earth who has been alive and well for hundreds and hundreds of years now. Keeping in mind what I submitted above prior to this last paragraph.
    Paul described the Antichrist as the "man of sin." I don't see how any of the Church Fathers could see Antichrist as anything but a man?

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Your view (OP) is basically my view. I often defer to the views of the Early Church Fathers. Who better would know what the Apostles meant in their writings than those closest to their time? They aren't always right, of course. There's some things that were less of a priority in their time. And some things are clearer in our time, since we see how history has gone behind us. But your view as presented is basically correct, in my view.
    Last edited by randyk; Dec 1st 2017 at 06:10 PM.

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Thanks Randy. Im going to add to the opening post as soon as I get a bit more time. I think the view of the Church fathers was lost during the middle ages. There are strong arguments for an Islamic antichrist, and I think it is pertinent to the days in which we live.
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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quote Originally Posted by randyk View Post
    Your view (OP) is basically my view. I often defer to the views of the Early Church Fathers. Who better would know what the Apostles meant in their writings than those closet to their time? They aren't always right, of course. There's some things that were less of a priority in their time. And some things are clearer in our time, since we see how history has gone behind us. But your view as presented is basically correct, in my view.
    I agree. If the scriptures say over and over again that the Beast of Revelation is a "he", that "he" is was a king, that "he" is now deceased, but will be a king in resurrection, that "he" must continue a short while, that "he" ascends out of the sea, that "he" rules, that "he" makes war against the saints and prevails, that "he" opens his mouth in blasphemy, and that "he" goes to perdition, do we really need the Church fathers?

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quote Originally Posted by Walls
    ... do we really need the Church fathers?
    The apostles were their 'sunday school' teachers.
    "Your name and renown
    is the desire of our hearts."
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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    I would now like to zero in to the historical situation that developed when the Roman Empire was breaking up. From the beginning of the 5th century German tribes began to pour over the Rhine river and invade Rome’s northern and western provinces. Christian writers were aware of this, for example, Jerome wrote:


    "Savage tribes in countless numbers have overrun all parts of Gaul. The whole country between the Alps and the Pyrenees, between the Rhine and the Ocean, has been laid waste by hordes of Suevi, Vandals, Alans, Gepids, Herules, Saxons, Burgundians, Alemanni."


    He goes on to say how he believed these invasions would divide up the empire and become the 10 kingdoms mentioned by Daniel. His interpretation seems more logical, IMO, than our modern theories about the Roman Empire morphing into the Roman Catholic Church.

    Here is a map of how it looked in AD 476 after Rome had been sacked and the capital moved to Constantinople. Notice how there were now 13 distinct geo-political regions. Pretty close to "10 kingdoms" isn’t it?


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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quite a few problems with this:
    1) The Roman Kingdom continued for a thousand years after Rome fell.
    2) There weren't 10 kingdoms after the fall of the west.
    3) There wasn't a later 11th which subdued 3 of these 10.
    4) There is ONLY a 4th beast, not a fifth. Therefore though I agree with Irenaeus - when he has the teeth and claws as speaking of one aspect of the 4th beast and connecting it to the Feet, and thus the Toes being the 10 kingdoms to come - I disagree that the 10 kings are of a different kind to the 4th beast, for this would mean a 5th. Rather it speaks of reappearance of that same 4th beast "teeth and claws" or "Feet" kingdom. We see this in the other parts of the Statue most clearly, with the Bronze Belly and Thighs. These were the Kingdom of the Greeks, yet split into the Belly of Alexander and the Thighs of the Kings of the North and South.
    5) Irenaeus is writing approximately 50 years (or more) after the death of John, and there is at least one person in between. Further though Irenaeus correctly notes that John gives further information about these 10 kings of Daniel, it is Irenaeus alone who claims it is the present Roman empire which is the beast. he is not stating that this is what he was taught by those who taught him, nor what John specifically taught. It is rather his personal extrapolation.

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
    The apostles were their 'sunday school' teachers.
    I understand where you are coming from, and I too would like to quiz the men who lived at that time. But if we consider that Paul predicted false teachers and a falling away after the Apostles died, and if we consider even the apostasy of five of the seven Churches while John was still alive in about 95 AD, we have to accept that the early Church fathers might just have had a flawed view. It is up to us to be, "These (who) were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so" (Acts 17:11).

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    Re: The Early Church believed Rome would be divided into 10 Kingdoms

    Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
    I would now like to zero in to the historical situation that developed when the Roman Empire was breaking up. From the beginning of the 5th century German tribes began to pour over the Rhine river and invade Romeís northern and western provinces. Christian writers were aware of this, for example, Jerome wrote:


    "Savage tribes in countless numbers have overrun all parts of Gaul. The whole country between the Alps and the Pyrenees, between the Rhine and the Ocean, has been laid waste by hordes of Suevi, Vandals, Alans, Gepids, Herules, Saxons, Burgundians, Alemanni."


    He goes on to say how he believed these invasions would divide up the empire and become the 10 kingdoms mentioned by Daniel. His interpretation seems more logical, IMO, than our modern theories about the Roman Empire morphing into the Roman Catholic Church.

    Here is a map of how it looked in AD 476 after Rome had been sacked and the capital moved to Constantinople. Notice how there were now 13 distinct geo-political regions. Pretty close to "10 kingdoms" isnít it?
    The major problem with any thought of the ten kings being anything else but future is that they give their power to the Beast who has not yet reigned. These Ten Kings MUST exist at the end of the age.

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