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Raymond Walker
Sep 25th 2008, 01:33 PM
During and after the Babylonian Captivity of 605 to 636 BC, since the people of the Northern kingdom of Israel (Ephraim) had been mingled with the people of the Southern kingdom of Judah, there was only ONE nation. Since after the captivity this nation was centered in Judah, the people became known as Jews. But this term applied to ANYONE of any tribe who was an Israelite.
1. Jer. 34:8-10, The term Hebrew is equated with the term Jew. (587 BC)
At Acts 26:7, Paul associates the term Jew, with the 12 tribes.
2. In Esther, the term Jew(s) refers to a member of the nation of Judah, which was comprised of people from all the tribes. Ezra 2:70, all Israel.
2 Chron. 36:23, "whoever there is among you of ALL HIS PEOPLE."
2 Chron. 34:5-6, 33; 35:18

A. Concerning Israel/Ephraim: Hosea 11:11

"They will come trembling like birds from Egypt, And like doves from the land of Assyria; And I will settle them in their houses, declares the LORD."
B. 1 Chron. 9:2-3,

"Now the first who lived in their possessions in their cities {were} Israel, the priests, the Levites and the temple servants.
And some of the sons of Judah, of the sons of Benjamin, and of the sons of Ephraim and Manasseh lived in Jerusalem."
C. Ezra

2:1, people of Israel
2:28, Bethel and Ai (Northern kingdom cities)
2:70, All Israel in their cities.
3:1, Now, no designation of Southern Kingdom and no king.
6:16-22, the feast of unleavened bread - sons of Israel.
7:6-7, 13; Sons of the people of Israel
D. Post-captivity status = one nation

1. Zech. 8:9-13
2. Malachi 1:1; 2:11 (3:4-6 = all 12 tribes).
E. Thus, a person could BECOME a jew, by becoming a member of the nation and basically accepting the religious practices of the NATION. Esther 8:17
3. Jew is used in John and Acts to refer to a member of the nation and not specifically a member of the tribe of Judah.
John 3:25; 4:9; 18:35; Acts 10:28; 18:2; 19:34; 21:39; 22:3
4. Romans 3:1-2, the Jews were entrusted with the oracles of God.
This has to refer to the people of Israel, for ALL the tribes were given the law at Sinai.
5. The comparison in Paul's theology is between Jew and Gentile (Greek), not Jew, Israelite and Gentile. This is because Israelite and Jew were synonymous. Rom. 1:16; 2:9;10:12; Gal. 2:14; 3:28; Col. 3:11
6. The adjective, "Jewish" is used in John to refer to that which pertains to the nation of Israel. John 2:6; 19:42; Acts 12;11; 16:1; 19:13-14;
7. Christ's title: the King of the Jews. He is king of all Israel, not just those from Judah.