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How Importan Are the 7 Rules of Hillel to Jesus' and the Apostles' Teachings?

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  • How Importan Are the 7 Rules of Hillel to Jesus' and the Apostles' Teachings?

    Originally posted by LandShark View Post
    Paul ... makes use of the 7 Rules of Hillel often, those rules effect context, and we are not even taught those rules exist, let alone understand the application of them. ... we don't fully understand his methods either, few churches teach his methods. ...


    What are the 7 Rules of Hillel and how important are they to understanding Jesus and the Apostles?


    According to http://www.yashanet.com/studies/revstudy/hillel.htm, the Seven Rules of Hillel are:



    1. Kal Vahomer (Light and heavy)
    The Kal vahomer rule says that what applies in a less important case will certainly apply in a more important case. A kal vahomer argument is often, but not always, signaled by a phrase like "how much more..."
    The Rabbinical writers recognize two forms ok kal vahomer:
    • kal vahomer meforash - In this form the kal vahomer argument appears explicitly.
    • kal vahomer satum - In which the kal vahomer argument is only implied.

    There are several examples of kal vahomer in the Tenach.
    For example: Behold the righteous shall be recompensed in the earth: much more the wicked and the sinner. (Proverbs 11:31)
    And: If you have run with footmen and they have wearied you, then how can you contend with horses? (Jerermiah 12:5a)
    Other Tenach examples to look at: Deuteronomy 31:27; 1 Samuel 23:3; Jerermiah 12:5b; Ezekiel 15:5; Esther 9:12
    There are several examples of kal vahomer in the New Testament. Y'shua often uses this form of argument.
    For example: If a man receives circumcision on the Sabbath, so that the Law of Moses should not be broken, are you angry with me because I made a man completely well on the Sabbath? (Jn. 7:23)
    And: What man is there among you who has one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will not lay hold of it and lift it out? Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath. (Mt. 12:11-12)
    Other examples of Y'shua's usage of kal vahomer are: Matthew 6:26, 30 = Luke 12:24, 28; Mathhew 7:11 = Luke 11:13; Matthew 10:25 & John 15:18-20; Matthew 12:12 & John 7:23
    Paul especially used kal vahomer. Examples include: Romans 5:8-9, 10, 15, 17; 11:12, 24; 1 Corinthians 9:11-12; 12:22; 2 Corinthians 3:7-9, 11; Philippians 2:12; Philemon 1:16; Hebrews 2:2-3; 9:13-14; 10:28-29; 12:9, 25.


    2. G'zerah Shavah (Equivalence of expresions)
    An analogy is made between two separate texts on the basis of a similar phrase, word or root Ė i.e., where the same words are applied to two separate cases, it follows that the same considerations apply to both.
    Tenakh example: By comparing 1 Samuel 1:10 to Judges 13:5 using the phrase "no razor shall touch his head" we may conlude that Samuel, like Samson, was a nazarite.
    "New Testament" example: In Hebrews 3:6-4:13 Paul compares Psalms 95:7-11 = Hebrews 3:7-11 to Genesis 2:2 = Hebrews 4:4 based on the words "works" and "day"/"today" ("today" in Hebrew is literally "the day"). Paul uses this exogesis to conclude that there will be 6,000 years of this world followed by a 1,000 year Shabbat.


    3. Binyan ab mikathub echad (Building up a "family" from a single text)
    A principle is found in several passages: A consideration found in one of them applies to all.
    Hebrews 9:11-22 applies "blood" from Exodus 24:8=Hebrews 9:20 to Jerermiah 31:31-34


    4. Binyab ab mishene kethubim (Building up a "family" from two or more texts)
    A principle is established by relating two texts together: The principle can then be applied to other passages. i.e:
    You shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in measures of length, of weight, or quantity. Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall you have; I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt. (Leviticus 19:35-36)
    By use of the fourth rule of Hillel we can recognize that the provision of equals weights and measures applies also to how we judge others and their actions.
    In Hebrews 1:5-14, Paul sites the following to build a rule that the Messiah is of a higher order than angels:
    Psalms 2:7 = Hebrews 1:52 Samuel 7:14 = Hebrews 1:5Deuteronomy 32:43/Psalms 97:7/(Neh. 9:6) = Hebrews 1:6Psalms 104:4 = Hebrews 1:7Psalms 45:6-7 = Hebrews 1:8-9Psalms 102:25-27 = Hebrews 1:10-12Psalms 110:1 = Hebrews 1:13 Binyan ab mikathub echad and Binyab ab mishene kethubim are especially useful in identifying biblical principles and applying them to real life situations. In this way Scripture is recontextualized so that it remains relevant for all generations.


    5. Kelal uferat (The general and the particular)
    A general principle may be restricted by a particularization of it in another verse Ė or, conversely, a particular rule may be extended into a general principle. A Tenach example: Genesis 1:27 makes the general statement that God created man. Genesis 2:7, 21 particularizes this by giving the details of the creation of Adam and Chava (Eve). Other examples would be verses detailing with how to perform sacrifices or how to keep the feasts. In the Gospels, the principle of divorce being allowed for "uncleanliness," is particularized to mean for sexual immorality only.


    6. Kayotze bo mimekom akhar (Analogy made from another passage)
    Two passages may seem to conflict until compared with a third, which has points of general though not necessarily verbal similarity. Tenach examples:
    • Leviticus 1:1 "out of the tent of meeting" and Exodus 25:22 "from above the ark of the covenant between the chrubim" seem to disagree until we examine Num. 7:89 where we learn that Moses entered the tent of meeting to hear YHWH speaking from between the cherubim.
    • 1 Chronicles 27:1 explained the numerical disagreement between 2 Samuel 24:9 and 1 Chronicles 21:5.
    • Exodus 19:20 "YHWH came down upon Mount Sinai" seems to disagree with Deuteronomy 4:36, "Out of Heaven He let you hear His voice." Exodus 20:19 (20:22 in some editions) reconciles the two by telling us that God brought the heavens down to the mount and spoke. (m.Sifra 1:7)

    An example from Romans: Paul shows that the following Tenach passages SEEM to conflict:
    The just shall live by faith (Romans 1:17 = Habakkuk 2:4) with There is none righteous, no, not one ... (Romans 3:10 = Psalms 14:1-3= Psalms 53:1-3; Ecclesiastes 7:20). Paul does the same here: [G-d] will render to each one according to his deeds. (Romans 2:6 = Psalms 62:12; Proverbs 24:12) with Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; Blessed is the man whom YHWH shall not impute sin. (Romans 4:7-8 = Psalms 32:1-2)
    Paul resolves the apparent conflict by citing Genensis 15:6 (in Romans 4:3, 22): Abraham believed G-d, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. Thus Paul resolves the apparent conflict by showing that under certain circumstances, belief/faith/trust (same word in Hebrew) can act as a substitute for righteousness/being just (same word in Hebrew).


    7. Davar hilmad me'anino (Explanation obtained from context)
    The total context, not just the isolated statement must be considered for an accurate exegesis. An example would be Romans 14:1, "I know and am convinced by the Lord Yeshua that nothing is unclean of itself; but to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean." Paul is not abrogating the kosher laws, but pointing out to gentile believers in the congregation at Rome (within his larger context of Romans) that: 1) things are unclean not of themselves but because God said they are unclean, and 2) they must remember the higher principle, that their "freedom to eat what is unclean" is secondary to the salvation of unsaved Jews who are observing their behavior, as they are looking for "gentiles coming into the faith of Israel" to be acting in an "appropriate manner" as a truth test of Paulís ministry (and Yeshuaís Messiahship).
    ďThe secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever,
    that we may observe all the words of this law."
    Deuteronomy 29:29

  • #2
    Re: How Importan Are the 7 Rules of Hillel to Jesus' and the Apostles' Teachings?

    Great idea for a thread. Let me share an answer, I will use the 4th rule, the "Building of a family using two or more texts." In the example above, the author of that article sites a good example, here it is:

    "In Hebrews 1:5-14, Paul sites the following to build a rule that the Messiah is of a higher order than angels:
    Psalms 2:7 = Hebrews 1:52 Samuel 7:14 = Hebrews 1:5Deuteronomy 32:43/Psalms 97:7/(Neh. 9:6) = Hebrews 1:6Psalms 104:4 = Hebrews 1:7Psalms 45:6-7 = Hebrews 1:8-9Psalms 102:25-27 = Hebrews 1:10-12Psalms 110:1 = Hebrews 1:13 Binyan ab mikathub echad and Binyab ab mishene kethubim are especially useful in identifying biblical principles and applying them to real life situations. In this way Scripture is recontextualized so that it remains relevant for all generations."

    When you read down Hebrews 1, you will notice, as pointed out above, that Paul (I too believe the author is Paul, but don't allow that to derail the thread) is quoting in part or in whole verse after verse from the OT. What the author does not say in his article very well, is that the CONTEXT of the verses being quoted is supposed to be applied to the NT letter they are being referenced in. So when you go and read the CHAPTERS being quoted, or at least the verses before and after that are tied to the point being made in those OT references, you are supposed to take that context and apply it to what you are reading in the NT. Which means the NT words ALONE are not the intent, the intent is the NT words WITH the context of the OT verses being quoted. What that does is add to what we are reading in the NT, it is certainly context changing in the NT, and when we don't recognize that this is what Paul is doing, we run the risk of not gaining his full point. No that doesn't mean we can't draw close to God and have deep understanding... it means we left some food on the table and if we factor in the methods Paul is using, we will clean the plate and have a belly a bit fuller of meat.

    Blessings.

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: How Importan Are the 7 Rules of Hillel to Jesus' and the Apostles' Teachings?

      Originally posted by LandShark View Post
      Great idea for a thread. Let me share an answer, I will use the 4th rule, the "Building of a family using two or more texts." In the example above, the author of that article sites a good example, here it is:

      "In Hebrews 1:5-14, Paul sites the following to build a rule that the Messiah is of a higher order than angels:
      Psalms 2:7 = Hebrews 1:52 Samuel 7:14 = Hebrews 1:5Deuteronomy 32:43/Psalms 97:7/(Neh. 9:6) = Hebrews 1:6Psalms 104:4 = Hebrews 1:7Psalms 45:6-7 = Hebrews 1:8-9Psalms 102:25-27 = Hebrews 1:10-12Psalms 110:1 = Hebrews 1:13 Binyan ab mikathub echad and Binyab ab mishene kethubim are especially useful in identifying biblical principles and applying them to real life situations. In this way Scripture is recontextualized so that it remains relevant for all generations."

      When you read down Hebrews 1, you will notice, as pointed out above, that Paul (I too believe the author is Paul, but don't allow that to derail the thread) is quoting in part or in whole verse after verse from the OT. What the author does not say in his article very well, is that the CONTEXT of the verses being quoted is supposed to be applied to the NT letter they are being referenced in. So when you go and read the CHAPTERS being quoted, or at least the verses before and after that are tied to the point being made in those OT references, you are supposed to take that context and apply it to what you are reading in the NT. Which means the NT words ALONE are not the intent, the intent is the NT words WITH the context of the OT verses being quoted. What that does is add to what we are reading in the NT, it is certainly context changing in the NT, and when we don't recognize that this is what Paul is doing, we run the risk of not gaining his full point. No that doesn't mean we can't draw close to God and have deep understanding... it means we left some food on the table and if we factor in the methods Paul is using, we will clean the plate and have a belly a bit fuller of meat.

      Blessings.
      Very cool. : )
      ďThe secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever,
      that we may observe all the words of this law."
      Deuteronomy 29:29

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: How Importan Are the 7 Rules of Hillel to Jesus' and the Apostles' Teachings?

        Here is another example... the 6th rule, "An analogy made from another passage" serves to end conflicts in Scripture. You have two passages that are in conflict, so a third is used to bring resolution. Here is an example:


        Command - NKJV Exodus 20:26 'Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed on it.


        Conflict -(10 cubits is about 15 feet, the altar is too high to avoid using steps)


        NKJV 2 Chronicles 4:1 Moreover he made a bronze altar: twenty cubits was its length,twenty cubits its width, and ten cubits its height.


        Conflict -(Ezekiel envisions steps in the Millennial temple)


        NKJV Ezekiel 43:16 "The altar hearth is twelve cubits long, twelve wide, square at its four corners; 17 "the ledge, fourteen cubits long and fourteen wide on its four sides, with a rim of half a cubit around it; its base, one cubit all around; and its steps face toward the east.


        Solomonís construction of the temple in 2 Chronicles 4:1 and Ezekielís Millennial temple seem to be in conflict with the command of Exodus 20:26 since the height of Solomonís altar (about 15 feet) necessitated an access to the top of it and Ezekielís temple lists steps.However, Exodus 28:42 resolves the conflict by showing that the steps were not the issue, rather the covering of ones nakedness with trousers when ascending steps.


        Resolution -(wear trousers to cover your nakedness)


        NKJV Exodus 28:42 "And you shall make for them linen trousers to cover their nakedness; they shall reach from the waist to the thighs.

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: How Importan Are the 7 Rules of Hillel to Jesus' and the Apostles' Teachings?

          Originally posted by LandShark View Post
          Here is another example... the 6th rule, "An analogy made from another passage" serves to end conflicts in Scripture. You have two passages that are in conflict, so a third is used to bring resolution. Here is an example:


          Command - NKJV Exodus 20:26 'Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed on it.


          Conflict -(10 cubits is about 15 feet, the altar is too high to avoid using steps)


          NKJV 2 Chronicles 4:1 Moreover he made a bronze altar: twenty cubits was its length,twenty cubits its width, and ten cubits its height.


          Conflict -(Ezekiel envisions steps in the Millennial temple)


          NKJV Ezekiel 43:16 "The altar hearth is twelve cubits long, twelve wide, square at its four corners; 17 "the ledge, fourteen cubits long and fourteen wide on its four sides, with a rim of half a cubit around it; its base, one cubit all around; and its steps face toward the east.


          Solomonís construction of the temple in 2 Chronicles 4:1 and Ezekielís Millennial temple seem to be in conflict with the command of Exodus 20:26 since the height of Solomonís altar (about 15 feet) necessitated an access to the top of it and Ezekielís temple lists steps.However, Exodus 28:42 resolves the conflict by showing that the steps were not the issue, rather the covering of ones nakedness with trousers when ascending steps.


          Resolution -(wear trousers to cover your nakedness)


          NKJV Exodus 28:42 "And you shall make for them linen trousers to cover their nakedness; they shall reach from the waist to the thighs.
          Interesting, are there NT examples?
          ďThe secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever,
          that we may observe all the words of this law."
          Deuteronomy 29:29

          Comment

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