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Thread: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

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    Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    "Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the command to restore and build Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince, there shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks." (Daniel 9:25)
    This prediction is arguably the most important Messianic prophecy written in the Bible. It says that Messiah would be revealed at the end of the 69th week. (of years)

    Our problem is that three or four decrees were issued. It would make life simpler if there was only one, because all we would need to do is count forward 483 years, (69 x 7) and the answer would be there. Either Messiah came or he did not. But decrees were made by three Persian Emperors following Daniel’s forecast, and we have to choose which one marks the commencement date from which to count.



    Actually, In God's eyes it was one decree. Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes were all correct as stated clearly in Ezra 6:14.



    “And the elders of the Jews built and prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. They finished their building by decree of the God of Israel and by decree of Cyrus and Darius and Artaxerxes king of Persia.”

    What this verse is saying is that it was really a single decree, and the source of the decree was God himself! He inspired
    Cyrus to declare restoration for Jerusalem in 538 BC but his order was delayed. If we add 483 years to 538 BC, we arrive at a year of no particular significance. Did an anointed prince appear in 55 BC? No, nothing of interest happened at all. However, Darius and Artaxerxes picked up the mantle of Cyrus and re-decreed it. Unusual as it may seem, the law of the Medes and Persians were permanent and could not be revoked, so it was normal for emperors to re-decree what had been decreed before.


    Therefore, the count of ‘sevens’ should be started in the reign of Artaxerxes. When we count forward 483 years from 1 Nisan 457 BC, it comes out at 1 Nisan AD 27 - the time Jesus began his public ministry. (John 1:29-34) When one considers how Daniel first predicts the decree nearly a century before it happened, then proceeds to telescope another 69 weeks further, we find a supernatural fulfilment of the ‘times’ in Jesus of Nazareth which cannot be brushed aside as a coincidence. It provides powerful testimony to the identity of the Christ.



    However, no sooner than we solve the “whose decree” issue, a cluster of date questions arise to muddy the waters. Did it happen in his seventh year or in his twentieth? Since Artaxerxes’ reign began late 465 BC, some commentators quote 458 BC and others 445 BC as the years in question. Just as many other sources say 457 BC and 444 BC. Why the difference?



    The goal of my topic here is to identify the date once and for all, because as stated, it provides the key to the Bible’s most important Messianic prophecy. Just join in if you've got a preferred starting date. I'll be batting for the 457 BC date, and I want to talk about a man called Sir Robert Anderson too. He's put a lot of people wrong.
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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    I prefer Ezra's decree, not Artaxerxes decree.

    What is the purpose of restoring a city and temple physically but not spiritually? That's a temporary fix .

    The true restoration of Jerusalem was when Ezra sent out a proclamation to gather Israel to repent. This proclamation was issued in late 458 BC.

    483 years later in late 26AD Jesus was baptised with water and the holy Spirit and began his public ministry as the anointed one.

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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Can you give us the reference of Ezra’s proclamation, and how it’s dated in late 458 BC?
    "Your name and renown
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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Ezra 10:2 Then Shekaniah son of Jehiel, one of the descendants of Elam, said to Ezra, “We have been unfaithful to our God by marrying foreign women from the peoples around us. But in spite of this, there is still hope for Israel. 3 Now let us make a covenant before our God to send away all these women and their children

    Ezra 10:7 A proclamation was then issued throughout Judah and Jerusalem for all the exiles to assemble in Jerusalem.

    Ezra 10:9 Within the three days, all the men of Judah and Benjamin had gathered in Jerusalem. And on the twentieth day of the ninth month, all the people were sitting in the square before the house of God,

    That scripture dates the issuing of the proclamation of repentance to the 17th day of the ninth month of the 7th year of Artaxerxes. Who started his reign in 465 BC.

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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    I think the view of both Artaxerxes in the 7th year and Ezra's proclamation coincide very nicely. The date appears to be 457-458 BC.

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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Quote Originally Posted by DurbanDude View Post
    Ezra 10:2 Then Shekaniah son of Jehiel, one of the descendants of Elam, said to Ezra, “We have been unfaithful to our God by marrying foreign women from the peoples around us. But in spite of this, there is still hope for Israel. 3 Now let us make a covenant before our God to send away all these women and their children

    Ezra 10:9 A proclamation was then issued throughout Judah and Jerusalem for all the exiles to assemble in Jerusalem.

    Ezra 10:9 Within the three days, all the men of Judah and Benjamin had gathered in Jerusalem. And on the twentieth day of the ninth month, all the people were sitting in the square before the house of God,

    That scripture dates the issuing of the proclamation of repentance to the 17th day of the ninth month of the 7th year of Artaxerxes. Who started his reign in 465 BC.
    Okay, it was a proclamation, but the one prophesied by Daniel was speaking of building the city and temple. This one is to do with marriage with foreign wives. I don’t think we can say it’s the one to count from.
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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
    Okay, it was a proclamation, but the one prophesied by Daniel was speaking of building the city and temple. This one is to do with marriage with foreign wives. I don’t think we can say it’s the one to count from.
    If you read Ezra chapter 9 and 10 this is a deep repentance and spiritual restoration of Israel on a national level. An absolute requirement because they went into exile unrepentant, and so to come back to Jerusalem without this deep repentance would not have lasted.

    13 And after all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great trespass, seeing that thou our God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and hast given us such deliverance as this; 14 Should we again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with the people of these abominations? wouldest not thou be angry with us till thou hadst consumed us, so that there should be no remnant nor escaping? 15 O Lord God of Israel, thou art righteous: for we remain yet escaped, as it is this day: behold, we are before thee in our trespasses: for we cannot stand before thee because of this.
    (but you need to read the whole of Ch 9 and 10 to get a full understanding how this was a national repentance of Israel.)

    Dabar means WORD
    Shuwb means RESTORE
    Banah means ESTABLISH

    From the time the word goes out to restore and establish Jerusalem
    (The temple is not mentioned)

    What you may see as impossible, I see as a distinct possibility. I acknowledge the decree of Artaxerxes could also fit though, I just think the spiritual restoration and establishment of Jerusalem is more significant.

    EDIT: This is not a huge difference, the decree of Artaxerxes was issued by Ezra to the administrators of that area just a short period before Ezra's issue of the proclamation, so the dating timeframes are nearly the same.

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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
    This prediction is arguably the most important Messianic prophecy written in the Bible. It says that Messiah would be revealed at the end of the 69th week. (of years)
    I agree it is a very important prophecy. It isn't simply about the Messiah coming, but about God's resolution of Israel, and her sins.
    It is important to grasp it is ALL about Israel, and indirectly this means the whole world.
    However it does NOT say the Messiah is revealed at the end of the 69th week (of years).
    It states unequivocally that the Messiah will COME after 7 weeks.
    So your first serious error is to claim the Messiah ONLY is revealed and that this is after 69 weeks when the prophecy states 7 weeks.

    Our problem is that three or four decrees were issued. It would make life simpler if there was only one, because all we would need to do is count forward 483 years, (69 x 7) and the answer would be there. Either Messiah came or he did not. But decrees were made by three Persian Emperors following Daniel’s forecast, and we have to choose which one marks the commencement date from which to count.
    Actually this is NOT a problem in the slightest.
    The first is because your length of counting is incorrect.
    However moreover these are decrees of Man, yet the prophecy speaks of the Word. This is where translator bias or choice can seriously affect our understanding. Just as the KJV used the word Messiah ONLY in this chapter in the entire OT, they also translated the same original word using two different English words WITHIN the same chapter. This is unwarranted.
    So in Dan 9:2 it speaks of the WORD of the Lord. Yet when that same word is used in verse 25 it is changed to commandment. This change changes our perception of what is being stated.
    What we should be looking for is the WORD of the Lord.
    Helpfully Daniel AND Ezra tell us what WORD this is.
    As for the Persian Emperors.
    The first decree of Cyrus does actually state part of the answer. The second decree by Artaxerxes prevents it. Artaxerxes' later decree does not mention rebuilding. And the final decree of Darius is a restating of the first decree of Cyrus, and would not exist except for the first decree.
    Clearly if we are looking for any decree of Man the ONLY decree that matches the prophecy is that of Cyrus, which Ezra also notes in connection with the WORD of the Lord. So there is NO issue or problem EXCEPT for those who are trying to present something which neither the prophecy nor the history support.

    Actually, In God's eyes it was one decree. Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes were all correct as stated clearly in Ezra 6:14.
    Actually these are correct for getting the Temple finished, but the prophecy was NOT solely the temple.
    Also note that this verse states the Temple was finished, and the following verse gives the date when it was completed - the 6th year of Darius, which most agree is 516 BC.

    What this verse is saying is that it was really a single decree, and the source of the decree was God himself! He inspired Cyrus to declare restoration for Jerusalem in 538 BC but his order was delayed. If we add 483 years to 538 BC, we arrive at a year of no particular significance. Did an anointed prince appear in 55 BC? No, nothing of interest happened at all. However, Darius and Artaxerxes picked up the mantle of Cyrus and re-decreed it. Unusual as it may seem, the law of the Medes and Persians were permanent and could not be revoked, so it was normal for emperors to re-decree what had been decreed before.
    Cyrus (according to Daniel) actually seems to have issued the order to restore around 536 BC (which is 70 years AFTER, just as the Word of the Lord to Jeremiah stated).
    Further the decree was NOT delayed, as the people returned and they started rebuilding the Temple AND the city walls. There was opposition which slowed down its completion, but the actual giving of the decree was NOT delayed.
    Further there is no taking away of 483 years, as that is not what the prophecy actually says.
    Darius did indeed re-issue the decree of Cyrus, but Artaxerxes had put a stop to building, and then didn't revoke his own decree but instead gave for sacrifices and offerings to be made, which was a solution to his own previous decree - just as we see in Esther.

    Therefore, the count of ‘sevens’ should be started in the reign of Artaxerxes. When we count forward 483 years from 1 Nisan 457 BC, it comes out at 1 Nisan AD 27 - the time Jesus began his public ministry. (John 1:29-34) When one considers how Daniel first predicts the decree nearly a century before it happened, then proceeds to telescope another 69 weeks further, we find a supernatural fulfilment of the ‘times’ in Jesus of Nazareth which cannot be brushed aside as a coincidence. It provides powerful testimony to the identity of the Christ.
    Wrong Artaxerxes. We KNOW this is the wrong date, as Ezra 6:15 states the completion of the Temple was by 516 BC, and this was through the decree of Artaxerxes which means THAT decree MUST have been given BEFORE 516 BC in order for Ezra to have included it AT this time of completion.
    Now when you grasp that then it becomes easy to see the other errors here, such as the false idea that Jesus began His public ministry in 1 Nisan 27 AD.
    Further IF you look at when Artaxerxes issued his decree, and ASSUMING it is Artaxerxes Longiman (which is what you are doing), then the decree was issued in 459 BC and Ezra left Babylon on 1st Nisan 458 BC, arriving in Jerusalem in the fifth month of 458 BC. Now that brings you to 26 AD NOT 27 AD.
    There was indeed supernatural fulfillment because this is the WORD of the Lord. However it has nothing to do with a decree for Ezra by Artaxerxes.
    And it is fulfilled as stated, just not as you suggest here.

    However, no sooner than we solve the “whose decree” issue, a cluster of date questions arise to muddy the waters. Did it happen in his seventh year or in his twentieth? Since Artaxerxes’ reign began late 465 BC, some commentators quote 458 BC and others 445 BC as the years in question. Just as many other sources say 457 BC and 444 BC. Why the difference?
    ONLY muddied IF you erroneously think that the Artaxerxes connected with Ezra's decree reigned from 465 BC.
    Now there was ANOTHER Artaxerxes (in fact many) who did issue a letter to Nehemiah which was around 445 BC. This was for building the walls. This was a separate letter in response to an issue that Nehemiah brought to the king's attention.

    The goal of my topic here is to identify the date once and for all, because as stated, it provides the key to the Bible’s most important Messianic prophecy. Just join in if you've got a preferred starting date. I'll be batting for the 457 BC date, and I want to talk about a man called Sir Robert Anderson too. He's put a lot of people wrong.[/QUOTE]
    Actually Sir Robert Anderson, though being clever got a lot wrong. Not least the initial premise of the prophecy, but next about Artaxerxes, and finally about the timing of Jesus' birth. I think he did the best he could with the data he had available at the time, but he compromised too much, in order to try to show the time of Jesus' coming. One of his problems he couldn't solve was the Census mentioned in Luke 2. What he did was accept that he had no historical data and therefore assume that either the information was lost or when it did become available it would support his theory. Unfortunately for him it doesn't.
    Last edited by ForHisglory; Oct 26th 2018 at 10:27 AM.

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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Quote Originally Posted by ForHisglory View Post
    Clearly if we are looking for any decree of Man the ONLY decree that matches the prophecy is that of Cyrus, which Ezra also notes in connection with the WORD of the Lord.

    On Adar 3 (March 10), 515, in the sixth year of Darius, the Temple was completed. That according to sources I found on the NET.

    If this date is accurate, that should mean from the time Cyrus made this decree, until the finishing of this temple, it has to match the following amount of years specified via the following in the NT.

    John 2:20 Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?

    46 years from 515 would be 561 or so. Yet 434 years from 515 BCE leads to nothing significant, and for certain doesn't lead to Jesus.

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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Quote Originally Posted by divaD
    John 2:20 Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?

    46 years from 515 would be 561 or so. Yet 434 years from 515 BCE leads to nothing significant, and for certain doesn't lead to Jesus.
    Johns reference was to when Herod started building in 20 BC. 46 years later was AD 27, the 1st year of Jesus ministry.
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    Re: Date of Artaxerxes Decrees

    Quote Originally Posted by divaD View Post
    On Adar 3 (March 10), 515, in the sixth year of Darius, the Temple was completed. That according to sources I found on the NET.

    If this date is accurate, that should mean from the time Cyrus made this decree, until the finishing of this temple, it has to match the following amount of years specified via the following in the NT.

    John 2:20 Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?

    46 years from 515 would be 561 or so. Yet 434 years from 515 BCE leads to nothing significant, and for certain doesn't lead to Jesus.
    Sorry divaD,
    But John 2:20 is NOT speaking of the Temple built by Zerubbabel & Co. It is speaking of the time from when Herod replaced that temple and put a new one in its place.
    This was in 18 BC.

    So nothing to do with the 2nd temple.
    The date you found on the net is based on Ezra 6 which states:
    Ezr 6:14* And the elders of the Jews built and prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. They finished their building by decree of the God of Israel and by decree of Cyrus and Darius and Artaxerxes king of Persia;*
    Ezr 6:15* and this house was finished on the third day of the month of Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king.

    Some say this was 515 and others 516 BC. I think 516 is correct, but then I have the temple destroyed in 586 BC.

    Cyberseeker claims 20 BC was when the temple was started. This is in part due to how you understand Josephus. Information is given in Antiquities of the Jews Book 15. Josephus has 18 years form the time Herod took Jerusalem to the finishing of the Temple.
    Most agree that Jerusalem was taken in 37 BC, so basically the earliest that the temple was finished is 19 BC.
    However are these people in John referring to from the time of its start to be built, which would have been a bit earlier, or are they really meaning from the completion of the second stage and the subsequent building work as Josephus has the temple finished yet they speak of continuing building work.

    When you get to Antiquities of the Jews Book 15 Chapter 11 we read:
    1. AND now Herod, in the eighteenth year of his reign, and after the acts already mentioned, undertook a very great work, that is, to build of himself the temple of God, (22) and make it larger in compass, and to raise it to a most magnificent altitude, as esteeming it to be the most glorious of all his actions, as it really was, to bring it to perfection; and that this would be sufficient for an everlasting memorial of him; but as he knew the multitude were not ready nor willing to assist him in so vast a design, he thought to prepare them first by making a speech to them, and then set about the work itself;

    Now as Herod only started reigning from the spring of 37 BC, the 18th year of his reign starts then spring 20 BC.
    Did he start in that year? We don't know because we then read this:
    And this was the speech which Herod made to them; but still this speech aftrighted many of the people, as being unexpected by them; and because it seemed incredible, it did not encourage them, but put a damp upon them, for they were afraid that he would pull down the whole edifice, and not be able to bring his intentions to perfection for its rebuilding; and this danger appeared to them to be very great, and the vastness of the undertaking to be such as could hardly be accomplished. But while they were in this disposition, the king encouraged them, and told them he would not pull down their temple till all things were gotten ready for building it up entirely again. And as he promised them this beforehand, so he did not break his word with them, but got ready a thousand waggons, that were to bring stones for the building, and chose out ten thousand of the most skillful workmen, and bought a thousand sacerdotal garments for as many of the priests, and had some of them taught the arts of stone-cutters, and others of carpenters, and then began to build; but this not till every thing was well prepared for the work.

    So from this after Herod had decided to build, he then had to convince the people and then he found they weren't ready for this, so then he had to get things ready.

    From this next section we get when it was completed and can work backwards:
    6. But the temple itself was built by the priests in a year and six months; upon which all the people were full of joy; and presently they returned thanks, in the first place, to God; and in the next place, for the alacrity the king had showed. They feasted and celebrated this rebuilding of the temple: and for the king, he sacrificed three hundred oxen to God, as did the rest every one according to his ability; the number of which sacrifices is not possible to set down, for it cannot be that we should truly relate it; for at the same time with this celebration for the work about the temple fell also the day of the king’s inauguration, which he kept of an old custom as a festival, and it now coincided with the other, which coincidence of them both made the festival most illustrious.

    So based on this we have the completion date as spring, and a start date 18 months earlier, this means though that the start of Josephus Book 15 is incorrect as the temple was NOT finished in Herod's 18th year. This means we need to work at calculating things through the details given.
    Some see that Herod may have taken 6 months to get all materials required and then the 18 months of the temple being built would lead to spring 18 BC for its completion.
    I think though that 6 months is too short, not only for getting the materials, but subsequently Herod removed the old foundation and laid a new, upon which the temple was built. This for me means a completion of the Temple in spring 17 BC.

    So the 46 years mentioned in John could be referring to 20 BC when Herod first suggested the temple to be rebuilt, or 19 BC which is when the work began (which causes Cyberseeker a real problem, and pretty much everybody, as that would make the year 28 AD), or 17 BC once the Temple proper was finished and then work commenced on other building work around the Temple, such as various courtyards etc. The whole Temple wasn't finished until 63 AD.

    Now I can accept why some chose the 20 BC date, especially if that fits with other dates. I personally don't see it as being possible, because I see the counting as starting with the end of the temple with its celebration, and subsequent building work being what is in view. I also count the later date because it fits with other dates from scripture and history.
    Throughout the period, the daily offerings continued.

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    Was Artaxerxes 7th year 458 BC?

    Xerxes was assassinated by his high official, Artabanus, who then became regent of Persia for a few months before being executed. In the last half of 465 BC, Xerxes’ son, Artaxerxes, became king. His ‘accession year’ would have lasted until Nisan (March) 464 BC when the Persian calendar year began, and then his first full year would have been, by Persian reckoning, Nisan 464 to Nisan 463.

    Hence his years ...

    1st year Nisan 464 to Nisan 463
    2nd year Nisan 463 to Nisan 462
    3rd year Nisan 462 to Nisan 461
    4th year Nisan 461 to Nisan 460
    5th year Nisan 460 to Nisan 459
    6th year Nisan 459 to Nisan 458
    7th year Nisan 458 to Nisan 457


    Now, the Bible references a decree in Artaxerxes 7th year and dates it as follows:

    "And Ezra came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king. For on the first day of the first month he began to go up from Babylonia." (Ezra 7:8)
    So, comparing this verse with the above chart of years certainly explains why so many scholars choose the 458 BC date. The decree was made on the very first day of the year! It seems to be an open and shut case!

    Coming up - Why so many say his 7th year was 457 BC?
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    Re: Was Artaxerxes 7th year 458 BC?

    Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
    Xerxes was assassinated by his high official, Artabanus, who then became regent of Persia for a few months before being executed. In the last half of 465 BC, Xerxes’ son, Artaxerxes, became king. His ‘accession year’ would have lasted until Nisan (March) 464 BC when the Persian calendar year began, and then his first full year would have been, by Persian reckoning, Nisan 464 to Nisan 463.

    Hence his years ...
    1st year Nisan 464 to Nisan 463
    2nd year Nisan 463 to Nisan 462
    3rd year Nisan 462 to Nisan 461
    4th year Nisan 461 to Nisan 460
    5th year Nisan 460 to Nisan 459
    6th year Nisan 459 to Nisan 458
    7th year Nisan 458 to Nisan 457
    Now, the Bible references a decree in Artaxerxes 7th year and dates it as follows:
    So, comparing this verse with the above chart of years certainly explains why so many scholars choose the 458 BC date. The decree was made on the very first day of the year! It seems to be an open and shut case!
    Coming up - Why so many say his 7th year was 457 BC?
    A few thoughts:
    1) If you don't count the first year as being his year, but the year of accession then it would be the 8th year that you are calculating from when Artaxerxes Longiman took the throne. So that would be Nisan 458 to Nisan 457 which in reality means 458 BC that you have things:
    Ezr 7:9* For on the first day of the first month he began to go up from Babylonia, and on the first day of the fifth month he came to Jerusalem, for the good hand of his God was on him.*

    Are you claiming Ezra was counting months from Tishri? Or was he counting from January?
    What does scripture show?
    Ezr 6:15* and this house was finished on the third day of the month of Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king.

    This is the last month of the year, which would be roughly February/March 516 BC.

    Ezr 6:19* On the fourteenth day of the first month, the returned exiles kept the Passover.

    So here Ezra is recording Nisan as the first month in the year - when Passover is celebrated.

    So scripture shows Ezra's month counting with the first month as Nisan.
    This means the decree given in chapter 7 was given BEFORE the start of that year. Ezra LEFT on the 1st Nisan which means he was given the decree BEFORE that date in order to arrange things.

    Ezr 7:7* And there went up also to Jerusalem, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the king, some of the people of Israel, and some of the priests and Levites, the singers and gatekeepers, and the temple servants.

    These people also had to prepare.
    This points to the decree being given in 459 BC - assuming it is Artaxerxes Longiman - which means 483 years later is 25 AD.
    However that is based on there being a part year which isn't counted followed by 7 full years.
    We are told that that it is DURING the 7th year that Ezra left.
    That means DURING the 6th year that the decree was given and NOT after 6 years had been completed.
    So the 6th year (according to your chart above is 459 - 458) and that is assuming that we don't count the accession year.
    If we do then this puts things back another year again.
    So that would be between 24 AD and Spring 26 AD at the latest.
    This unfortunately doesn't work for your claim as you have Jesus being announced by John on 1st Nisan 27 AD.
    This is also wrong as you have the events of John occurring AFTER the 40 days in the wilderness.
    This means God made His announcement BEFORE that date:
    Mat 3:13* Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him.*
    Mat 3:14* John would have prevented him, saying, “I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?”*
    Mat 3:15* But Jesus answered him, “Let it be so now, for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness.” Then he consented.*
    Mat 3:16* And when Jesus was baptized, immediately he went up from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened to him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming to rest on him;*
    Mat 3:17* and behold, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.”

    Further Jesus said a few days later His time had NOT YET come - IOW His public ministry had NOT started.

    Now as the Artaxerxes in Ezra 7 is none other than Cambyses II, then your calculations are off by about 65 years, and aren't the correct decree.
    Ezra 6:14 & 15 shows that Artaxerxes in this Book was reigning BEFORE Darius.

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    Re: Was Artaxerxes 7th year 458 BC?

    The Persians, the previous Babylonians, and the Judean kings before that, used an accessional method of counting a kings reign. The part-year when he took over from his father until New Years day was called a kings 'accession' whether it was one or whether it was ten months. Then the next full year was his 1st year.
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    Re: Was Artaxerxes 7th year 458 BC?

    Quote Originally Posted by Cyberseeker View Post
    The Persians, the previous Babylonians, and the Judean kings before that, used an accessional method of counting a kings reign. The part-year when he took over from his father until New Years day was called a kings 'accession' whether it was one or whether it was ten months. Then the next full year was his 1st year.
    I have no problem with that, but do you have any sources which actually show it, r is it simply speculation?
    Based upon that then the decree is given in 459 BC (which was his 6th year AFTER accession) in order that Ezra could leave with many others and a lot of gold etc on the 1st Nisan.

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